When we speak of phenological phases, we are referring to the typical moments in the annual cycle of the vine. For a correct and complete analysis, it must be remembered that meteorological indicators are often used to predict vine growth phases such as flowering, veraison, and maturity.
It all begins with the fundamental cultivation operation for those who practice viticulture, pruning, from whose wounds the vine releases a liquid, in jargon called weeping.
This liquid flows out from the wounds of the vine until the first buds open up, around the time when temperatures stabilize at over 12 °C. To maximize sunlight exposure, the optimal orientation of the rows is from north to south.
This then leads to the bud growth phase, which is also subject to important influences due to climatic and environmental conditions, particularly temperature.
Although the initial growth phase is slow, it is possible to notice a considerable increase during the flowering period, which then decreases at the beginning of the summer and finally disappears around the last days of July.
At the same time, the cluster inflorescence proceeds with its full development, culminating in the full flowering of the vine.
The grape harvest usually carried out between September and October, is preceded by ripening. During this phase, complex physical and chemical processes take place, whereby the grapes acquire the typical characteristics of the variety.
After the bunches have reached full maturity, the vines can prepare for the rigors of winter.
In mid-autumn, when the leaves fall, the vine enters into vegetative rest, a phase that lasts until the next budding. During the extremely cold seasons, natural ventilation moves through the vineyard, protecting the vines from frost.